Precision Gages

What is a Thread Gage?

When you are out on a job site, you are going to have to deal with all kinds of equipment and material. You may not always know all the ins and outs about about every single piece of equipment. That can include what kind of thread pitch you are working with when it comes to anything that has been threaded. When working with threaded objects, it can be very difficult to find exactly what you need, especially when you're trying to find just one individual screw, bolt, or piece of pipe in the midst of a bunch of other types. But there are gadgets you can use to help you determine which one to use. One of those gadgets is a thread gage. Before discussing thread gages, though, there are two points you need to know: Screw Lead and Pitch The screw lead and the screw pitch are very similar and in many cases are the same thing. They are both distance measurements. The lead refers to the distance that the screw travels in one full 360 degree rotation. The pitch measures the distance between the crest of one thread and the next one. In a single threaded screw, the lead and the pitch are generally the same distance. However, in a screw that is double threaded, they are not going to be the same distance.  Genders Threaded objects come in two genders, male and female. A threaded object that is female is threaded on its interior. A threaded object that is male is threaded on the outside. A screw would be a male object and the corresponding nut would be a female.  Now that you understand screw lead and pitch and genders, read on to learn about thread gages themselves. Thread Gages and Plugs When you need to know the pitch of a threaded object, a thread gage or plug is the correct tool to use. The gages come in a set on that is generally on a ring, similar to a set of keys on a ring. Each leaf of the thread gage set has a slightly different pitch ratio. In order to use the set correctly, you just need to put the leaf up against the screw. If it doesn't fit correctly, then you will need to go up or down in size until you get the right one. A thread plug will be slightly different. You are going to have to try to screw it into the pipe, nut, or other object to see if it fits. If it doesn't, then you will need to try a different plug. 

4 Thread Gage Terms You Need to Know

If you have equipment that uses thread gages, and you need to replace or work on a thread gage, it can be helpful to be familiar with the different terminology that surrounds thread gages. Here are four terms that you need to know when working with thread gages. 1. Master Plug/ Setting Plug                                      When working with thread ring gages, you have to frequently check the calibration of the gage. The calibration of the gage is checked using a tool that is referred to as both a master plug or a setting plug. This tools allows you to check the calibration of the gage in question, and make sure that the tolerance and calibration is correct for the gage. 2. Go and No-Go When a gage is tested, its condition is usually described as either go or no-go. This is really as basic as it sounds. If the thread gage will work for the specific piece of equipment that it is being tested on, it will be marked as a go gage. If the thread gage will not work on that specific piece of equipment or is defective overall, it will be marked as a no-go part. These simple terms are used when talking about if a thread 3. Pitch Diameter When you need to replace a thread gage, you need to know the pitch diameter. When you are working with a straight thread, the pitch diameter a measurement of the diameter of the cylinder. If you are measuring the pitch diameter on your own, it is measured from where the thread ridges to the thread grooves in a straight line. On many thread gages, there is actually more than one pitch diameter. The first pitch diameter usually represents the maximum diameter of either the external or internal threads, and the second pitch diameter measurement matches the minimum diameter of the internal or external threads on the gage. gage works for a specific machine and if it is in working condition altogether. 4. Class X & W Tolerance Class X and W measure two different types of tolerance issues. Class X is a measurement of the tolerance level for working gages. The Class X measurement needs to fit the necessary tolerance level for the machinery that the gage is being used on Class W tolerance is a measurement that is used for setting plugs. This is a tolerance measure that lets you know if a setting plug gage will work for your machinery. These are just a few of the terms you need to know if you are working with thread gages.  Knowing the terminology surrounding gages will help you take care of, maintain, and replace your gages accurately and effectively. To learn more, contact a company like WESTport. 

Using Thread Gauges for Improved Product Quality

Many of the products that consumers use each day feature nuts and bolts in their design. These nuts and bolts fit together tightly via a network of threads along the interior surface of the nut and exterior surface of the bolt. The thread patterns must fit together properly in order to create a solid connection. Thread gauges are used by industry professionals to test the parameters of nuts and bolts. Understanding these thread gauges will help you better identify how incorporating them into your production practices will improve the quality of your finished products. Thread Plug Gauge The first type of thread gauge that you will need when testing thread patterns is a thread plug gauge. This type of gauge is designed specifically to test the parameters of the thread pattern on internally threaded parts (like nuts). The thread plug gauge resembles the post of a screw, with two distinctive ends. One end, the GO end, should be able to pass through the nut entirely with minimal effort. The other end, the NO-GO end, should not be able to pass through the nut at all. If a nut performs well when tested with both ends of the thread plug gauge, then the nut is deemed effective and safe for use in product assembly. Solid Thread Ring Gauge The second type of thread gauge that you will find useful in testing thread patterns is a solid thread ring gauge. This gauge is used to test the receipt of a screw or bolt. The solid thread ring gauge consists of two separate rings. Just as the nut must past tests administered by both the GO and NO-GO ends of a thread plug gauge, the screw or bolt must pass tests administered by the GO and NO-GO rings of a solid thread ring gauge. The screw must pass through the GO ring completely and fail to pass through the NO-GO ring.  A passing performance means that the pitch and thread pattern of the screw is correct. Routine inspections can help improve the quality of the products that you manufacture each day. If your products utilize threaded nuts and bolts, then testing the correctness of the thread patterns on these components is critical. Invest in a thread plug gauge and a solid thread ring gauge to help you carefully determine which nuts and bolts are equipped to withstand the test of time and perform properly. 

A Look at the Common Applications for Thread Gages

In industrial processes, thread gages are some of the most valuable tools there can be, but you really don't hear a whole lot about them because they are one of the smallest tools that are used in different applications. Thread gages are handheld tools that are designed to give precise measurements of the pitch of screw threads. Whether you are an industrial business owner yourself, an average handyman, or you are just a regular joe or jane with curiosity about industrial tools, you probably want to know a little more about these tools. Here is a look at some of the most common applications for thread gages.  Measuring Plumbing Pipes Plumbing pipes and components that screw together have threads that must be adequately sized when a plumber has to install new lines. In the even they come across a threaded pipe and need to know the exact size of the threading, they can use a thread gage to get the measurements instead of haphazardly trying to measure them by hand or estimate the size. Because threads are always designed to industry standards, there are only so many sizes out there, so a thread gage is capable of giving the precise thread spacing for replacement parts.  Measuring Automotive Components If you are working on a car's engine, have to replace a bolt, but only have the hole to determine the size of the bolt you need, you have to know the size of the threads inside of the hole. In this situation, a thread gage would be especially useful. Without one, you would be left having to pick up multiple bolts to try and find one that will fit or using a rethreading tool to cut new threads and use a larger bolt, which isn't always going to give the best fit.  Measuring for Manufacturing Processes Manufacturing companies don't always make every single part of what it is they are assembling in the factory. Most often, they utilize parts made at different facilities to create a whole product, at least to some degree. If a manufacturer is assembling a product that involves the use of parts made by a third-party, they may not have the exact thread spacing for proper hardware placement. With a basic thread gage, the employees can quickly get measurements of receptacles in parts, so they know exactly what type of bolt or screw they need to complete the build. 

Three Things You Need to Do to Keep Your Thread Gages in Excellent Working Order

Thread gages work because they are threaded and screwed into position via their threads. That means that these gages also suffer some of the same issues as screws, such as thread wear, bare threads, and loosening after continued use. However, there are ways to prevent rapid deterioration of the thread gages. Here are three things you need to do to keep your gages in excellent working order. Lubricant Thread gages should be greased or oiled when they are in use. This makes the gages easier to turn, close, and open, and it helps them to last longer, too. Their threads are not going to rub or grind down when the gages are properly greased or lubed with oil. Make sure you have the correct lubricant or grease for the gages you are using in your factory, and that the lubricant or grease is compatible with any other fluids that may come into contact with the gages when they are engaged. Re-Threading A couple times a year, have all of the thread gages in the plant re-threaded. This involves removing them and winding them through a thread-cutting machine. The machine sharpens the thread edges of the gages and does so without cutting the threads down, without cutting the distance between the winding threads, and without removing any of the threads as they are. When the gages are maintained in this fashion, they remain sharp and they easily screw in and out like they should.  Swap out the Female Parts of the Gages Thread gages are "male" components screwed into "female" components. Looseness comes as a result of the threads inside the female components wearing down. You can try to re-thread the female part of the gage, but it is just easier to replace the female components. You will find that if you replace the female components, the male components are no longer loose or acting as though they are threadbare. When You Should Replace the Thread Gages Entirely While the above actions will keep your thread gages in excellent working order longer, the gages will eventually give out. You know that it is time to replace the gages entirely when none of the above measures cause the gages to continue working effectively. If you plan ahead, you can buy and stash your gages by the gross. Each of those gages, when taken care of properly, will provide you with years of nonstop service. For more information on thread gages, contact a company such as WESTPort.  

A Guide to Buying Thread Gages

If you are interested in getting the most from your industrial work, it's important that you do your due diligence and stock up on the parts that will serve you. These are parts that help with your equipment automation and ensures that you are in good hands regardless of what sort of work your business conducts. Consider the tips below so that you can look into purchasing thread gages for your industrial company.  The benefits of buying thread gages  When you are looking into purchasing thread gages for your industrial company, you need to understand why buying these plugs are to your benefit. For one, these thread gages are incredibly easy to use and affordable. You will have a lot of options in front of you that will allow you to apply a coating to your thread gages so that they are protected. When you use these thread gages to your advantage, you will find that your industrial equipment will be kept at its best, so that you receive high-quality performance for your industrial business as a whole. Regardless of what sort of industrial company you run, you'll be in a great position to manage the use of these thread gages for the long haul.  Shop for the best thread gages you can find No matter what kind of industrial work you conduct, it's important that you shop around for the right models and types available. There are a number of different thread gage types that you can look into, to include NPT thread gages, ACME thread gages, UN thread gages, and metric thread gages. Regardless of what you are interested in, there are contractors that can help you figure out what you should buy, and there are pros and cons of each decision. Make the most out of these purchases by doing your due diligence with your research.  Set up a budget for your thread gage purchase To get what you need out of your thread gage purchase, it's vital that you look into the specific model and serial numbers so that you can shop around. When you have a budget going into the purchase, you will be able to manage your spending and ensure that you are getting what you need out of the process. Buy a warranty for your thread gages as well to be sure you are covered.  Utilize these three tips to get the most out of your thread gage purchases. 

Parts Unknown: When You Cannot Tell a Screw from a Bolt or its Size

Taking machines apart to repair them almost always results in leftover parts you cannot identify, but you still have to replace. How on earth are you going to find out if this is a bolt or a screw? Is it metric or standard? What about thread width? You cannot just order replacement fasteners without first knowing what they are and their measurements. When the pieces do not reveal any information about themselves, here is what you can do next. Get out the Thread Gauges and Start Searching Gather up the threaded fasteners and pull out the trusty box of thread gauges. These devices can tell you everything you need to know about these fasteners that you have to replace. They can tell you length, the measurement of the distance between thread loops, metric versus standard measurement for width, length, and thread width, and so much more. It actually should not take you too long to figure things out if you have a complete set of metric and standard thread gauges. Write Down the Information You Gather from the Thread Gauges Once you have narrowed all of your options down to one from the thread gauges you used, write this information down. It is a lot of specific detail that will tell the company from which you are ordering exactly what it is you need. A description of the head of the fastener helps too. No head, flat head, rounded flat head, screw head, and Philips screw head are some of the ways to describe the top of the fasteners. Take Down the Name of the Fasteners after You Order When you supply the fastener replacement company with the details you collected about the damaged fasteners you have, they will tell you what these fasteners are called. Write that information down, too. Store this info somewhere where you can easily reference it in the future, or where someone else working the same job can find the info and read it. Now You Can Properly Reassemble the Machine or Equipment Once you receive the replacement fasteners, you can reassemble the machine or the piece of equipment properly. It is a good idea to have a copy of the repair manual for this particular machine close at hand. You can reference it when it is time to insert and install the new fasteners in their expected positions. There should be no unknown parts left. Taking machines apart to repair them almost always results in leftover parts you cannot identify, but you still have to replace. How on earth are you going to find out if this is a bolt or a screw? Is it metric or standard? What about thread width? You cannot just order replacement fasteners without first knowing what they are and their measurements.

Work for an Industrial Company and Buying Thread Gages? 3 Different Types that are Available

If you work for an industrial company and have been told that you need to purchase thread gages, you will quickly find there are different types available.  This is important as there are standards you must follow when it comes to these parts. To help you know what you should purchase, below are three different types of thread gages you will find on the market today that help you get your job done. Flexible Hole Thread Gages Flexible hole thread gages can assist you in inspecting the locations of threaded holes in the parts. This then helps you determine the correct distances for the threaded holes so the screw fits properly. This type of gage will work well no matter the type of hole you are working with. You can find flexible hole thread gages in metric sizes or in unified sizes. As you are using the flexible hole thread gages keep an eye on the bottom of the gage as it will wear out over time. Once this happens the gage will not provide you with the correct distances of the threaded holes. Straight Pipe Thread Gages Straight pipe thread gages are used to determine the size of the threads in the internal part. This gage can be used to calibrate threads of the part. This gage can also be used to calibrate thread parts and straighten the thread ring. You can use straight pipe thread gages to inspect internal rings for wear. This will ensure all gages that you use stay in good condition, so you know you are always meeting set standards. Truncated Thread Gages This type of thread gage is used to set adjustable thread gages and for calibration. You can also use truncated thread gages to check for wear and tear. The first half of the gage is shortened in diameter. The rest of the gage is the normal size in diameter. The shorter section is used to determine the right pitch diameter. The second half is used to determine if the angle in the products are correct. The second half also ensures the thread diameters are correct for the thread rings. Talk to a company that sells industrial thread gages, like WESTport, to learn much more about them. This company can also give you information about other types of thread gages available for you to purchase to ensure you purchase the right type.

The Benefits Thread Gages Offer for Your Hydraulic Items

Manufacturing facilities often use high-pressure hydraulic items to operate heavy machinery. If you have items like this in your facility, you owe it to yourself to buy a thread gage. These products will help keep your hydraulics running smoothly for years. Why These Gages Benefit Your Business Thread gages are designed to test what thread is necessary for an externally-threaded item in a manufacturing facility. There are many types of threaded items in most factories and manufacturing areas. For example, the hydraulic gear in your factory typically have an externally-threaded pipe that connects to exterior air tanks and other items. Using one of these products in your facility helps to ensure that your hydraulic equipment is fit with the proper products. They can also serve as a bridge between parts that don't quite fit together. Before purchasing one, however, it is important to know how to use one on your hydraulic gear. Using One is Typically Quite Simple Using a thread gage is a very simple process. You simply insert one of the gages on the tool on top of your externally-threaded hydraulic gear. Turn it a few times to test the width of the threaded item. At this point, you should have a reading or a better understanding of the threads you need to install items on your hydraulic gear. In this way, you can make sure that your connections are tight and that no leaks occur around the edges. Tolerances Vary for These Gages Tolerance is a very important consideration when choosing a gage for your factory's hydraulics. That's because each of these gages is built to measure different threaded areas and also manage different levels of pressure. You can usually find the tolerance printed on the side of the box or on a website that discusses the various pitches and tolerances of a gage. Usually, the width of a gage heavily influences its tolerance. For example, narrower ones usually have a lower tolerance level than wider ones. However, the tolerance can also vary depending on the manufacturer of the part. Make sure to spend a little money your gages to ensure your hydraulic parts get the connecting items they need. So don't hesitate to talk to a high-quality provider of these parts, such as WESTport, to find one that fits your facility's hydraulic parts. They can pick a gage that will work for a majority of your connective items and ensure that you only install the best parts in your facility.

Working with Thread Gages

If your metalwork involves screws and nuts, you're likely to need thread gages. These gages are hand-held tools which will enable you to measure so-called threads in nuts, bolts, and screws to ensure they're compatible with the corresponding metal pieces. If you're just beginning to work with these gates, here are some minor details to be aware of. Get the Right Kind All thread gages have a "GO" end which is meant to be inserted into the nut or on top of the screw to do the appropriate measurements. However, different metal parts require different gages. For example, if you're evaluating "turns per inch" or TPI of a small screw, a ring gage is the appropriate tool. However, if you're checking the diameter of a nut, a simple plug gage is the better choice. Know the difference between the different thread gages so you can accurately measure. Care for the Gages Like most measuring tools, gages can be ignored once they're finished being used. However, this can lead to some problems. Thread gages are metal objects, so it's possible for them to start rusting. If this happens, it will be harder to insert the GO end into a nut or on top of any screws. Operation of the gages will be much more difficult and delay work. Therefore, you should be periodically waxing your gages with oil-based waxes. Calibration is also going to be necessary periodically. Any measuring device should be checked to ensure that measurements are accurate for the people using them. Ensure your staffers are calibrating each month, if not more often. You may also want to have a master gage on hand to check the others. Have Multiple Gages Available Because thread gages are small and fit in your hand, it's easy to lose them among the equipment and other substantial tools in your shop. Ensure that you have multiple gages of all sizes and types available at all workstations. If one is lost, that shouldn't make one employee's work grind to a standstill; they should be able to retrieve another and get on with their work. Consider Double-Check Training You may want to have an in-service session or two about the proper use of your thread gages. For instance, they should never be forced into a nut, as they can become stuck there if you're not using the right size. Ensuring everyone uses these tools properly will preserve the gages without damaging metal pieces. Use these gage details to make your shop better. Work with gage retailers and other metal professionals to ensure you've got the best tools for your work.

3 Tips for Buying and Using Thread Gages

When you work on any sort of industrial assembly line, it's important that you do everything possible to get the best equipment to help you. No matter what sort of business you own and operate, it's crucial that you shop for the thread gages that will be best for your machinery. If you have never purchased these pieces of equipment before, take some time to the ins and outs of them. You can do that by following the tips below.  #1: The benefits of buying and using thread plug gages If you are thinking about purchasing thread gages, it's crucial that you understand why they are beneficial in the first place. For one, these thread gages are high quality and typically crafted by manufacturers that are skilled. You will find that they are easy to use and can be easily slipped into your budget. By taking the time to buy and use these thread gages, you'll be able to use it for the long-term since they're durable. To prolong the life of your thread gages, you can add a coating. The ability to upgrade these gages adds yet another incredible benefit that makes this equipment worth the purchase.  #2: Shop for the best thread gages It's vital that you do what you can to buy thread gages that are useful to you. There are a lot of professionals out there that can help you with this purchase, so take the time to reach out to a few different shops. When you are shopping around for an excellent part that will help you, it'll be easier to make the most out of your industrial equipment. Take the time to look into the specifications and laser markings that will allow you to get what you need from these purchases. Above all, be sure that you touch base with some qualified professionals that sell these parts, to make sure you're in good hands.   #3: Make great use of your thread gages Finally, be sure that you get the most out of your thread gages by using them properly. In this regard, stay on top of things like storage, cleaning them properly, and making sure that you don't force it in if you are having issues. Maintain your equipment the best that you can and reach out to contractors that can help you with repairs.  Utilize these tips to buy the thread gages that you need. Contact a company, like WESTport, for more help.

5 Thread Gage Details for Your Facility

Working with metals often includes a variety of materials. Focusing on welds, metal panels and parts could take attention away from the actual "nuts and bolts" used in projects as well. These pieces, along with screws, must fit well together and thread gages often make that possible. Measuring "threads" of screws and nuts ensures solid fitting, and gages are the tools you'll need. What gage details are needed to use them? 1. Using Appropriate Type If you never knew that "gage" was the name for the tool you've been using, you may also not understand that all kinds of different ones exist. Basic plug gages measure pitch diameter, but if you need information about how many times a screw will be turning every inch, a measurement called TPI, you have to engage a ring gage. Recognizing which gage is most appropriate will save time and get work accomplished faster. 2. Checking Gages Gages, like most instruments, will wear down over time and be less effective than when they were new. For this reason, testing with master plugs should reveal how effective your gages are on any given day. If you realize they're too old to do their work properly, consider new pieces.  3. Protecting Against Rust Gages, like the equipment they measure, are created from metals or metal alloys. As such, corrosion and rust aren't impossible. This is something you'll need to regularly protect against. Watch facility conditions and keep airflow venting well. Ensure that you purchase gages with anti-corrosion properties or that you keep them clean and dry. Oil-based waxes should help too. 4. Keeping Multiple Gages Whether your gages aren't calibrated properly or are in use by multiple workers at once, keeping multiple gages in workstations and on-site is wise. Estimate need, seek feedback about the types most needed, and buy accordingly. 5. Holding Training Sessions You may have hired employees based on their abilities with industrial machinery and equipment, but it's possible that their methods have become sloppy or that their memories of the proper technique are rusty. Therefore, it's beneficial to employ training sessions for both new and existing workers. Correct thread gage usage and test accuracy so that when they're using the equipment in their tasks, you can trust their work. Thread gage experts, retailers, and your own employees can provide more input about how to best work with these pieces in your business. Utilize these suggestions; gage work should be simple and effective for all. For more information, contact a company like WESTport.

Tips for Maintaining Industrial Thread Gages

Thread gages are important tools that are used in industrial settings to measure screw threads and calibrate gages properly. When your company invests in thread gages, it is natural to want them to last for as long as possible. While thread gages do not require a lot of maintenance, there are several things that should be done to keep them in good condition to ensure that they last a long time and can take accurate measurements and make the right calibrations. If you're ordering new thread gages, use the following tips to take care of them. Keep the Thread Gages Clean Keeping your company's thread gages clean can help extend their lifespan and ensure that they work properly as needed. Thread gages should never have extended contact with dirt and oil, as they can corrode the surface of the thread gage. This includes the oils on the skin, so make sure that anyone who uses a thread gage washes his or her hands beforehand. After calibration, the thread gage should be cleaned with a quality solvent that removes oil and dirt and then carefully wiped dry. Store in a Dry, Cool Area Since thread gages are used to make precise measurements, it is important that there are no changes to its size. Thus, it is important to keep thread gages stored in a cool, dry area where they will not be exposed to heat or sunlight since these things can cause the metal of the thread gage to expand and then contract when it cools down. It is best to store thread gages on a clean piece of cloth in a container and then place the container in a cool spot. Train Inspectors and Operators in How to Use and Care For Thread Gages When new thread gages are purchased for your company, it is a good idea to offer a refresher course in using and maintaining thread gages, so all inspectors and operators understand what to do. Proper training can help ensure that no thread gages are ruined due to improper use or not keeping the gages in the right condition. Keep Thread Gages Properly Labeled Since thread gages are available in different sizes, it is very important that each one is clearly labeled. If a thread gage is not labeled, it can be used for the wrong inspection or calibration, which can lead to the thread gage being damaged in the process. For more information, contact a company like WESTport.

Optimizing Product Lines: How to Guarantee Your Company’s Goods are Superior in Quality

A manufacturing company prospers or fails based on the quality of the products manufactured. Because quality is so important to the success of the company, procedures must be put in place to make sure the products properly meet the customer’s needs, not only the first time but every time. Create a Plan Before the first item rolls off the assembly line, management must create a plan of action. This plan of action addresses many factors, such as calculating how much manpower is needed to complete the order, ensuring enough raw materials are on hand to complete the order, and understanding what quality control measures must be put into place to make sure that each item produced exactly matches specifications. Maintenance The company must maintain three key factors to ensure the quality of a company’s goods remains superior to that of the competition. The equipment on the production line must be regularly maintained. Not only does regular maintenance prevent unscheduled outages, it assures the equipment will continue to produce consistently accurate products. When staff turnover leads to hiring new employees, those new employees must be just as qualified as the persons who left. Equally important to hiring qualified personnel is maintaining an active training program, especially when equipment upgrades occur and when replacing displaced workers. Lastly, the finished product is only as good as the raw materials that go into it. Purchase those products from a reliable vendor and regularly inspect purchases for consistent purity. Quality Assurance Whether a company makes cupcakes or bolts, not all quality assurance can be assessed by sight. Fortunately, you can find companies like WESTport Corporation that specialize in the development, production, and distribution of quality assurance devices. These companies provide the tools needed to assess to the nth degree just how accurate company’s goods meet specifications. Unfortunately, not all quality assurance companies are equally trustworthy. That is where word of mouth and reputation can aid in separating the winners from the losers. Commitment Superior goods come from a commitment to excellence. From the president down, instill the need for accurate calibrations, reduced defective products, and increased pride in a job well done. To guarantee your company’s goods are superior in quality, create a viable plan of action that details the who, what, when, and how of production. Follow up the plan with consistent maintenance and a reliable quality assurance routine and watch your defects numbers decrease while your customer satisfaction ratings skyrocket.

Med Tech: How Modern Technology is Impacting Patient Care

Posted on March 6, 2018 Technology has played a significant role in improving the quality of care for those in hospitals, nursing homes, or even the patient’s own home. Still, much of the public is unaware or skeptical of technology’s role in nursing and patient care. Here we’ll discuss some of the great strides made in technology regarding the medical field. Gauges Companies such as WESTport lead the way in the design and manufacturing of variable and fixed limit gauges for the use throughout the medical industry. Some of the common applications of these gauges are for bone support plates, bone screws, conical threads, etc. They are meant to help doctors with orthopedic and prosthetic devices. Restoring Vision Nano-Retina has created a duel-system treatment for the blind, with a chip being implanted to the eyeball coupled with sophisticated eyeglasses to restore several vision qualities using electromagnetic cells that work like photoreceptors. For disinfection efforts, new technologies like UV light bulbs and portable UV robots can be held in hospital rooms to create chemical reactions using oxygen in bacterial cells, causing them to die, the same way bleach would kill them. Emergency Treatment Electronic cameras placed in ambulances can now allow doctors to communicate with paramedics before even arriving to the hospital. Paramedics can administer medicine and physical treatment to patients in emergencies where time is often the essence of life or death. These are just a few of the physical devices that are in use today. Services & Remote Patient Care The revolution of technology and healthcare hasn’t stopped at the hospital, as the digital age has helped patients become more independent and safer within their own homes, along with services that help reduce the confusion regarding their next step. Need a second opinion? Online services like Grand Rounds and 2nd MD allow you to talk to doctors and get advice easy and quick for those instances where you’re just not sure. Analytic specialists like Metalogix and Lumiata help record patient information to help nurses monitor patients remotely through technology that allows them to track patterns in patients and their habits without having to be physically present. Other services like ZocDoc and Rightcare can help you schedule appointments and guide you through readmission processes. Even with everything discussed, there are still thousands of advancements available to help patients that much of the public isn’t aware of. It is important to be in the loop of technology, because not only has it provided us many luxuries, but it has also saved thousands of lives. by Lizzie Weakley

Gage Care Tips

How Should I Care for My Gages? Clean the part before gaging by removing any dirt, coolant or chips NEVER force the gage. Always use light pressure. Protect the gage from damage. Nicks and burrs cause inaccurate results. Keep gages clean and coated with a thin coat of rust preventative and stored properly. This will increase the wear life of your gage(s). Avoid handling gaging surfaces. The oil from your fingerprints causes rust. Gages should be protected from exposure to excessive heat, moisture and corrosive chemicals. The temperature of the gage and the part should be the same to avoid any effects of thermal expansion on the material. The best temperature for the part and the gage to be inspected at is 68° degrees Fahrenheit. Gages should be periodically calibrated to insure accuracy. Gages and "Go" gages in particular, will wear with normal use and require recalibration. Frequency of calibration is dependent on such factors as how often the gage is used, part abrasiveness, tolerance, and applicable quality procedures. All gages should be monitored and maintained accordingly to insure accuracy. Got Any Other Tips for Me? Quality Gaging Tips – Where’s the fault?

Types of Mechanical Gauges

Ruler and scales: They are used to measure lengths and other geometrical parameters. They can be single steel plate or flexible tape type tool. Calipers: They are normally of two types- inside and outside caliper. They are used to measure internal and external size (for e.g. diameter) of an object. It requires external scale to compare the measured value. Some calipers are provided with measuring scale. Other types are odd leg and divider caliper. Vernier caliper: It is a precision tool used to measure a small distance with high accuracy. It has got two different jaws to measure outside and inside dimension of  an object.It can be a scale, dial or digital type vernire caliper. Micrometer: It is a fine precision tool which is used to measure small distances and is more accurate than the vernire caliper. Another type is a large micrometer caliper which is used to measure large outside diameter or distance. Feeler gauge: Feelers gauges are a bunch of fine thickened steel strips with marked thickness which are used to measure gap width or clearance between surface and bearings. Telescopic feeler gauge: It is also known as tongue gauge and it consists of long feeler gauge inside a cover with tongue or curved edge. The long feeler strips protrude out of the cover so that it can be inserted in to remote places where feeler gauge access is not possible. Poker gauge: This gauge is used to measure propeller stern shaft clearance, also known as propeller wear down. Bridge gauge: Bridge gauges are used to measure the amount of wear of Main engine bearing. Normally the upper bearing keep is removed and clearance is measured with respect to journal. Feeler gauge can be used to complete the process. Liner measurement tool: Liner measurement tool is a set of straight assembled rod with marked length in each set. It is used to measure the wear down or increase in the diameter of the engine liner. American Wire Gauge: American wire gauge or AWG is a standard tool which is circular in shape and has various slots of different diameter in its circumference. It is used to measure cross section of an electric cable or wire. Bore Gauge: A tool to accurately measure size of any hole is known as bore gauge, It can be a scale, dial or digital type instrument. Depth gauge: A depth gauge is used to measure the depth of a slot, hole or any other surface of an object. It can be of scale, dial or digital type. Angle plate or tool: It is a right angle plate or tool used to measure the true right angle of two objects joined together. Flat plate: Flat plate is a precised flat surface used to measure flatness of an object when it is kept over the flat plate. Dial Gauge: Dial gauge is utilized in different tools as stated above and can be separately used to measure the trueness of the circular object, jumping of an object etc. Lead Wire: It is a conventional method to used soft lead wire or lead balls to measure the wear down or clearance between two mating surfaces. The lead wire or balls of fixed dimension is kept between two surfaces and both are tightened against each just as in normal condition. The increase in the width of the lead wire or ball will shoe the clearance or wear down. These are some of the main tools that are used on board ship. If you feel we have missed any important tool, then let us know and we will add it in the list. Snap Gauges: A snap gage is a form of Go/no go gauge . It is a limit gage with permanently or temporarily fixed measurement aperture(s) (gaps) which THREAD PITCH GAUGE   Three different sets of threading gauges: A thread pitch gauge, also known as a screw pitch gauge or pitch gauge, is used to measure the pitch or lead of a screw thread. The uppermost gauge in the image is an ISO metric pitch gauge, the larger gauge in the center is for measuring the Acme thread form, and the lower gauge is for Whitworthscrews. Thread pitch gauges are used as a reference tool in determining the pitch of a thread that is on a screw or in a tapped hole. This tool is not used as a precision measuring instrument. This device allows the user to determine the profile of the given thread and quickly categorize the thread by shape and pitch. This device also saves time, in that it removes the need for the user to measure and calculate the thread pitch of the threaded item.   PROFILE GAUGE A profile gauge or contour gauge is a tool for recording the cross-sectional shape of a surface. Contour gauges consist of a set of steel or plastic pins that are set tightly against one another in a frame which keeps them in the same plane and parallel while allowing them to move independently, perpendicularly to the frame. When pressed against an object, the pins conform to the object. The gauge can then be used to draw the profile or to copy it on to another surface. Applications Profile gauges are used widely in metalworking and woodworking. In architectural conservation, they are used to document the profiles of decorative moldings. In archaeological illustration, they are typically used to record the profile of pots, and are thus named pottery gauges; but in ceramics, a pottery gauge is a template used in making pots.   GAUGE BLOCK   A gauge block (also known as a gage block, Johansson gauge, slip gauge, or Jo block) is a precision ground and lapped length measuring standard. Invented in 1896 by Swedish machinist Carl Edvard Johansson, they are used as a reference for the calibration of measuring equipment used in machine shops, such as micrometers, sine bars, calipers, and dial indicators(when used in an inspection role). Gauge blocks are the main means of length standardization used by industry.   RING GAUGE A ring gauge, or ring gage, is a cylindrical ring of steel whose inside diameter is finished to gauge tolerance and is used for checking the external diameter of a cylindrical object. Ring gauges are used for comparative gauging as well as for checking, calibrating, or setting of gauges or other standards. Individual ring gauges or ring gauge sets are made to variety of tolerance grades in metric and English dimensions for master, setting, or working applications. "Go" spline ring gage There are three main types of ring gauges: go, no go, and master or setting ring gauges. Go ring gauges provide a precision tool for production comparative gauging based on a fixed limit. Go gauges consist of a fixed limit gauge with a gauging limit based on the plus or minus tolerances of the inspected part. A go ring gauge's dimensions are based on the maximum OD tolerance of the round bar or part being gauged. A go plug gauge's dimensions are based on the minimum ID tolerance of the hole or part being gauged. The go plug (ID) gauge should be specified to a plus gauge makers' tolerance from the minimum part tolerance. The go ring (OD) gauge should be specified to a minus gauge makers' tolerance from the maximum part tolerance. No-go or not-go gauges provide a precision tool for production comparative gauging based on a fixed limit. No-go gauges consist of a fixed limit gauge with a gauging limit based on the minimum or maximum tolerances of the inspected part. A no-go ring gauge's dimensions are based on the minimum OD tolerance of the round bar or part being gauged. The no go ring (OD) gauge should be specified to a plus gauge makers' tolerance from the minimum part tolerance. Master and setting ring gauges includes gauge blocks, master or setting discs, and setting rings are types of master gauges used to calibrate or set micrometers, optical comparators, or other gauging systems. Working gauges are used in the shop for dimensional inspection and periodically checked against a master gauge.   TELESCOPIC GAUGE Telescopic gauge set These are a range of gauges that are used to measure a bore's size, by transferring the internal dimension to a remote measuring tool. They are a direct equivalent of inside calipers and require the operator to develop the correct feel to obtain repeatable results. The gauges are locked by twisting the knurled end of the handles, this action is performed to exert a small amount of friction on the telescopic portions of the gauge (the smaller diameter rods found at the T head of the gauge). Once gently locked to a size slightly larger than the bore, the gauges are inserted at an angle to the bore and slowly brought to align themselves radially, across the hole. This action compresses the two anvils where they remain locked at the bores dimension after being withdrawn. The gauge is then removed and measured with the aid of a micrometer or caliper.   SMALL HOLE GAUGES Small hole gauge set. Sizes from top to bottom: 3 to 5 mm (0.118 to 0.197 in) 5 to 7.5 mm (0.197 to 0.295 in) 7.5 to 10 mm (0.295 to 0.394 in) 10 to 13 mm (0.394 to 0.512 in) Small hole gauges require a slightly different technique to the telescopic gauges, the small hole gauge is initially set smaller than the bore to be measured. It is then inserted into the bore and adjusted by rotating the knurled knob at the base, until light pressure is felt when the gauge is slightly moved in the bore. The gauge is then removed and measured with a caliper or micrometer. GO/NO GO GAUGE Hardened and ground plug gauge Replaceable thread and plug gauges   A Go-NoGo gauge (or Go/no go) refers to an inspection tool used to check a workpiece against its allowed tolerances. Its name derives from its use: the gauge has two tests; the check involves the workpiece having to pass one test (Go) and fail the other (No Go). It is an integral part of the quality process that is used in the manufacturing industry to ensure interchangeability of parts between processes, or even between different manufacturers. A Go NoGo gauge is a measuring tool that does not return a size in the conventional sense, but instead returns a state. The state is either acceptable (the part is within tolerance and may be used) or it is unacceptable (and must be rejected). They are well suited for use in the production area of the factory as they require little skill or interpretation to use effectively and have few, if any, moving parts to be damaged in the often hostile production environment.

3 Interesting Tidbits From the History of Fixed Limit Thread Gages

If you have used thread gages for decades in your daily work, you know that these simple objects offer a quick and easy way to test inside major diameter, outside major diameter, and pitch diameter limits on threaded parts. But you may not know the facts about these gages listed below. Read on to discover some cool-to-know tidbits about these valuable tools. 1. What's the Difference Between "Gage" and "Gauge"? Thread gages (and many other types of gages) typically use the g-a-g-e spelling, but for most English speakers and writers, g-a-u-g-e is the more common spelling. Why the discrepancy? According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, both spellings of gage were widely used in the 1400s. At that time, English spelling had not been standardized by dictionaries and linguists as it has today. People used both "gage" and "gauge" to mean the same thing. (And, of course, when they spoke, spelling didn't matter.) By the late 1800s, "gauge" became the preferred spelling in common usage for the word that means an instrument or standard for measuring. However, the "gage" spelling remains common in more technical fields, such as manufacturing and engineering. Thus, thread gages still use the spelling without the "u"-and likely will for the foreseeable future. 2. When Did Thread Gages First Appear? It's almost impossible to pinpoint a specific date in history when thread gages (and other types of fixed limit gages) were invented. Rather, they came to exist as a logical necessity during the Industrial Revolution. In the USA, the story begins with Eli Whitney, the inventor known for creating the cotton gin. In 1801, he built 10 guns that all used the exact same size and shape of parts. He took them apart and put them back together in front of Congress to demonstrate the practical value of interchangeable parts. In truth, Whitney wasn't the first to show that interchangeable parts could save governments money on guns. A French man named Honore Blanc had performed a similar demonstration a few decades earlier. Also, Whitney's gun were actually handmade, rather than made by machines and tested with gages for conformity to a specific size standard. Still, Whitney's demonstration popularized the idea of creating parts to fit standard sizes. In the ensuing decades, engineers and inventors created methods for building clocks, sewing machines, steam engines, typewriters, guns, cars, and many other products with interchangeable parts. This development allowed goods to be produced faster and cheaper. Thread gages are one method manufacturers use to determine that parts are interchangeable, or, more precisely, manufactured to reliable and exacting standards. Thread gages test whether internal or external threads meet the requirements for a specific part that serves a specialized purpose. 3. What Makes Thread Gages So Important Today? Today's thread gages can test threaded parts to within very precise accuracy limits. For many industries, these parts must meet those exacting standards so the machines that use them can operate safely. For example, many car components are held together with nuts, screws, and bolts, as are airplanes. Those vehicles transport people and goods over long distances. If the individual parts of those vehicles don't meet exact standards, they may not operate correctly or even arrive at their destinations. Manufacturers use thread gages (and other fixed limit gages) to test various parts to ensure they make reliable, safe vehicles. Of course, thread gages have advantages beyond their ability to prevent crashes and machine malfunction. They also offer upfront cost-saving benefits to the manufacturer for the following reasons: Thread gages are portable, so you can move them from place to place easily for testing purposes. Thread gages are certified to meet industry standards. Thread gages cost less per tested piece than any other testing method. Thread gages are made from wear-resistant materials like carbide, steel, and chrome, so they will last and not require replacement very often. If you need high-quality thread gages, talk to our team at WESTport Corp. We serve clients worldwide who rely on precision measuring instruments.

Hand Taps and Proper Threading Techniques

Whether you’re repairing a damaged thread or threading virgin material, there are a number of factors to consider and procedures to follow to produce the best job, with the least amount of wear and tear —and breakage, on your tooling. Threading is divided into two types, internal and external. Internal threading is done by using a tool called a TAP in a hole drilled to a specific diameter for the thread size and pitch you want to cut. External threads, such as for bolts and studs, are made by using a tool called a DIE, which is applied to a specific diameter of rod for the size and pitch of the threads you want to cut. Both taps and dies can be used to either cut new threads or repair damaged threads. Taps and dies come in various configurations and materials, the most common being High Speed Steel (HSS) for softer materials and Cobalt for hard materials like stainless steel. Some manufacturers apply platings or coatings designed to increase the cutting ability and life of their products, beneath that, it is usually one of the two materials for most applications. The threads found on most mass produced externally threaded products such as bolts, studs and screws, are formed by a process known as thread rolling. A headed, but unthreaded blank is squeezed between two opposing dies, much the same way you would roll a twig between the palms of your hands. This rolling action displaces the  metal of the blank, forming threads. Machine produced threads are what is referred to as a Class 2A fit and has considerable variation in tolerance compared to a cut thread. Threads produced using taps and dies, whether by hand or machine, are what is referred to as cut threads. Cut threads are generally of better quality and closer tolerance which is why a die nut run on the threads of a brand new fastener might still remove some material, and/or plating. Hand Tapping Hand taps come in three basic configurations -Taper, Plug and Bottoming. TAPER taps have the first 7 – 10 threads at the tip ground flatter than the main body of the tap to enable easy starting of the threads in the hole. Sometimes called a starter tap, taper taps can be be used to start the thread in a blind hole for another tap to finish or used to cut threads all the way on a through hole. PLUG taps are like taper taps in that they have tapered threads at the starting end of the tap,  the difference is there are fewer of them, usually the first 3-5 threads, so you get to cutting a full thread sooner. Although not as easy to start as a taper tap, they can be used to start a thread. If you can only buy one type of tap, and you’re a patient user, plug taps can be a good choice because they are still easy to start, but they can also form complete threads deeper into a blind hole than a taper tap.   BOTTOMING taps have no ground threads at the starting end and are generally used after, and in conjunction with a taper or plug tap. Bottom taps can cut threads to the bottom of blind holes although they do not do well at starting threads.   Threading Dies Hand threading dies are generally of two types. ROUND dies are designed to fit in a T-handle while HEX DIE NUTS can be used with regular hand tools. (Wrenches and sockets.) Round dies are usually the choice for cutting new threads whereas hex die nuts are commonly used as a chaser to repair existing threads. Round dies also require a holder/handle to use them, whereas hex die nuts do not. Proper Hand Thread Cutting Techniques Taps Are Brittle – Handle With Care In order for taps and dies to cut, they must be harder than the materials they are cutting.  This additional hardness also makes them brittle, meaning, they can be easily broken, something you want to avoid at all costs. It is always preferable to use a proper T-handle for taps rather than a wrench or locking pliers. The latter two work, in a pinch, but you must be careful because turning the tap from one side only can put asymmetrical stress on the tap, causing it to go off center, or break. Using a T-Handle keeps the force applied over the center of the tap or die, maintaining proper symmetry. Lubricate! Although there is really not much heat build-up to speak of when had cutting threads, lubricating the cutting threads can reduce friction binding and aid in chip removal. You can use a a specialty tapping fluid, a light machine oil, a little WD-40, even a shot of PAM will work. In a pinch, you can even use saliva. You don’t need a lot of lubrication, a little sliptivity goes a long way and will make the job easier. Take Your Time You really don’t want to mess up a tapping job. Breaking a tap off in a hole —especially below the surface level will cause you untold frustration and possibly a number of colourful expletives! Remember, taps are very hard, so trying to drill one out can be difficult, if not extremely messy. Take your time, go slow, this is truly one of those situations where haste could indeed make waste —of several hours of your time and possibly, your wallet. Break Up The Chips The cutting teeth on a tap are not continuous all the way around the tap body. There are usually 3 or four cutting sections separated by a groove, called the flute, between them. Once the first full teeth begin cutting, the metal being removed may be a long strip, called a swarf, or chips. The flutes job is to provide clearance so the chips can be kept clear of the cutting teeth and pushed out the top of the hole. It is extremely important that these cuttings be broken up to prevent jamming and breaking the tap. The best way to do this is to turn the tap in the direction of cutting until you start to feel it bind. At this point, turn the tap slowly in reverse until you hear, or feel a ‘click’ of the chip breaking away from the material being cut. The vast majority of tap breakage can be avoided by making sure you break the chips, and the smaller the tap, the more important it is. Understanding Thread Type And Sizes In North America, and Canada in particular, there are two main thread series in use. The oldest of these uses Imperial fractional measurement and is often referred to as SAE which stands for The Society Of Automotive Engineers. Back in 1916 when the association was formed, the term ‘automotive’ was derived from Greek where ‘auto’ means self and from the latin word ‘motivus’ which means of motion. In other words, any form of self-powered vehicle. As the Society developed it came to incorporate the standards of the various other associations of self-powered vehicles, everything from tractors to aircraft. The SAE standard thread pitches are measured in TPI or threads per inch. For each diameter of SAE threads, there are also two pitches, commonly referred to as UNC or Unified National Coarse (commonly called coarse thread) and UNF or Unified National Fine (fine thread). The other, more recently adopted standard is known generally as metric but actually encompasses a number of different standards, from different countries. DIN, ISO, JIS, these are all metric standards. Metric thread pitches are expressed as the distance between threads, so a thread pitch of 1.0mm would mean it was 1.0mm between the tops of two adjacent threads. For the most part, the various metric standards agree on a dimensional standard and a common coarse thread pitch, which is the most widely used. Fine pitch metric fasteners do exist and often come in more than one fine thread pitch —some as many as 4 or 5! This can cause some confusion and one should really have a thread gauge if they are in doubt. For a better view of the SAE and metric thread available, download a copy of the handy Tap/Drill Chart at the end of this article. Use The Correct Hole Size Also on the Tap/Drill chart you will find the correct size drill bit for the hole you have to drill and it’s decimal equivalent. Using the correct hole size is important on two points. First, if the hole is too large, the root of the threads will be too shallow and insufficient and may strip out or fail. If the hole is too small, it will cause the tap to bind and quite possibly break trying to cut too much material. People are often unaware that there are four different series of standard twist drills. We all know about fractional and metric sizes, but with twist drills there are also Number and Letter drills. Sometimes, the hole size you need is not a standard fractional size. 1/4″-20 for example, requires a #7 drill bit for proper threading. Oh, and coarse and fine threads are always different drill sizes. On some softer materials, like aluminum and thin mild steel, you can use the ‘close enough’ principle, but consider the strength and purpose of the resulting thread. In such cases, it’s always better to use a slightly smaller bit than a slightly larger one. Chip clearing is even more important here and the tap should be well lubricated and extracted during the threading process to keep the hole, threads and tap clean and free of debris and chips. Buy What You Need — Buy Quality Sure, you can buy a complete tap and die set, but do you really need it? Oftentimes it’s better to just buy the taps you need or use on a regular basis, pay a little more, and get a better, more reliable tool. Economical tap and dies sets, while able to fill your current and future needs, might be false economy if the products are poorly made. FREE Tap Drill Chart How often do you get something useful for free? Well, here you go! Please feel free to download a copy of our Tap and Die Chart. It will give you all the threading information you need and includes an SAE-Metric-Decimal equivalent chart. Download Link KMS_Tap_Drill-ShopChartz™ Posted on January 8, 2012 by Gord Field

Useful Resources

Associations AMT Association for Mfg. Technology ISA Int'l Society for Measurement & Control NTMA National Tooling & Machining Association SME Society for Mfg. Engineers SAE Society for Automotive Engineers ANSI National Standards Systems Network NIST National Institute of Standards & Technology Trade Publications Cutting Tool Engineering Modern Machine Shop Quality Tooling & Production Quality Digest

Gage Calibration FAQs

What are gages used for? Fixed limit gages are primarily used to check dimensions and geometries; plug gages check internal and ring gages external dimensions and geometries. They effectively insure that a part being measured is within its designed tolerance limits. Fixed limit gages are highly accurate, economical and easy to use.   What are the principles of Go/NoGo gaging? To use as a "Go/NoGo" functional check, try and fit both the "Go" and "NoGo" gages into or onto a part being measured. The measured part passes if the "Go" gage fits and the "NoGo" doesn't, otherwise the part fails. A "Go/NoGo" check is strictly a pass/fail test. The actual part size is never measured.   What are the types of fixed limit gages? Plug gages are available in two types’ plain cylindrical and thread, and in several popular styles: reversible, Taperlock, and Trilock. The style is usually determined by the size of the gage. Ring gages are also available as plain cylindrical and thread type gages.   What kinds of wear resistance and tolerance are there? Gages are available in tool steel, chrome, and carbide. Chrome and carbide are harder and provide longer life to the gage. A choice of tolerance is also available. Please refer to the Gagemaker's tolerances chart to see which tolerance best suits your needs.   How is gage tolerance calculated? The standard practice for determining gage tolerance is to allow 10% of the product tolerance to be divided between the "Go" and "NoGo" gages. For plug gages, the "Go" is normally a plus tolerance and "NoGo" a minus tolerance. For ring gages the opposite is true; "Go" is normally a minus tolerance and "NoGo" a plus tolerance. Using this practice as a guideline, gage tolerance is always included in the part tolerance and accounts for up to 10%. This means that 10% of good product could potentially fail the inspection but that no bad product would ever pass.   Is it cost effective to outsource my calibration? Click for answer.   Is gage calibration an investment in quality production? Click for answer.  

Straight Pipe Threads Table Chart ANSI

The following table chart defines Straight Pipe Threads for Mechanical Joints, NPSM and NPSL ANSI/ASME B1.20.1, American Pipe Threads Standard. Straight pipe threads are designated NPSC = National Pipe Straight Coupling. Also generically referred to as "IPS Threads" or "Iron Straight Threads". Note that straight pipe threads, unlike tapered pipe thread do not provide any sealing function. Typically, a design that utilizes a straight pipe thread will incorporate a sealing features, like an oring to facilitate fluid sealing. All chart data given in inches Nominal Pipe Size Threads per Inch External Thread Internal Thread Allowance Major Diameter Pitch Diameter Minor Diameter Pitch Diameter Max. aa Min. Max. Min. Min. aa Max. Min. Max. Free-fitting Mechanical Joints for Fixtures—NPSM 1/8 27 0.0011 0.397 0.390 0.3725 0.3689 0.358 0.364 0.3736 0.3783 1/4 18 0.0013 0.526 0.517 0.4903 0.4859 0.468 0.481 0.4916 0.4974 3/8 18 0.0014 0.662 0.653 0.6256 0.6211 0.603 0.612 0.6270 0.6329 1/2 14 0.0015 0.823 0.813 0.7769 0.7718 0.747 0.759 0.7784 0.7851 3/4 14 0.0016 1.034 1.024 0.9873 0.9820 0.958 0.970 0.9889 0.9958 1 11 1/2 0.0017 1.293 1.281 1.2369 1.2311 1.201 1.211 1.2386 1.2462 1 1/4 11 1/2 0.0018 1.638 1.626 1.5816 1.5756 1.546 1.555 1.5834 1.5912 1 1/2 11 1/2 0.0018 1.877 1.865 1.8205 1.8144 1.785 1.794 1.8223 1.8302 2 11 1/2 0.0019 2.351 2.339 2.2944 2.2882 2.259 2.268 2.2963 2.3044 2 1/2 8 0.0022 2.841 2.826 2.7600 2.7526 2.708 2.727 2.7622 2.7720 3 8 0.0023 3.467 3.452 3.3862 3.3786 3.334 3.353 3.3885 3.3984 3 1/2 8 0.0023 3.968 3.953 3.8865 3.8788 3.835 3.848 3.8888 3.8988 4 8 0.0023 4.466 4.451 4.3848 4.3771 4.333 4.346 4.3871 4.3971 5 8 0.0024 5.528 5.513 5.4469 5.4390 5.395 5.408 5.4493 5.4598 6 8 0.0024 6.585 6.570 6.5036 6.4955 6.452 6.464 6.5060 6.5165 Loose-fitting Mechanical Joints for Locknut Connections—NPSL 1/8 27 ... 0.409 ... 0.3840 0.3805 0.362 ... 0.3863 0.3898 1/4 18 ... 0.541 ... 0.5038 0.4986 0.470 ... 0.5073 0.5125 3/8 18 ... 0.678 ... 0.6409 0.6357 0.607 ... 0.6444 0.6496 1/2 14 ... 0.844 ... 0.7963 0.7896 0.753 ... 0.8008 0.8075 3/4 14 ... 1.054 ... 1.0067 1.0000 0.964 ... 1.0112 1.0179 1 11 1/2 ... 1.318 ... 1.2604 1.2523 1.208 ... 1.2658 1.2739 1 1/4 11 1/2 ... 1.663 ... 1.6051 1.5970 1.553 ... 1.6106 1.6187 1 1/2 11 1/2 ... 1.902 ... 1.8441 1.8360 1.792 ... 1.8495 1.8576 2 11 1/2 ... 2.376 ... 2.3180 2.3099 2.265 ... 2.3234 2.3315 2 1/2 8 ... 2.877 ... 2.7934 2.7817 2.718 ... 2.8012 2.8129 3 8 ... 3.503 ... 3.4198 3.4081 3.344 ... 3.4276 3.4393 3 1/2 8 ... 4.003 ... 3.9201 3.9084 3.845 ... 3.9279 3.9396 4 8 ... 4.502 ... 4.4184 4.4067 4.343 ... 4.4262 4.4379 5 8 ... 5.564 ... 5.4805 5.4688 5.405 ... 5.4884 5.5001 6 8 ... 6.620 ... 6.5372 6.5255 6.462 ... 6.5450 6.5567 8 8 ... 8.615 ... 8.5313 8.5196 8.456 ... 8.5391 8.5508 10 8 ... 10.735 ... 10.6522 10.6405 10.577 ... 10.6600 10.6717 12 8 ... 12.732 ... 12.6491 12.6374 12.574 ... 12.6569 12.6686 For ANSI Standard Straight Pipe Thread the major and the minor diameters of the internal thread and the minor diameter of the external thread vary with the pitch diameter. The major diameter of the external thread is usually determined by the diameter of the pipe. These theoretical diameters result from adding the depth of the truncated thread (0.666025 x p) to the maximum pitch diameters, and it should be understood that commercial pipe will not always have these maximum major diameters. Notes for Free-fitting Fixture Threads: The minor diameters of external threads and major diameters of internal threads are those as produced by commercial straight pipe dies and commercial ground straight pipe taps. The major diameter of the external thread has been calculated on the basis of a truncation of 0.10825p, and the minor diameter of the internal thread has been calculated on the basis of a truncation of 0.21651p, to provide no interference at crest and root when product is gaged with gages made in accordance with the Standard. Notes for Loose-fitting Locknut Threads: The locknut thread is established on the basis of retaining the greatest possible amount of metal thickness between the bottom of the thread and the inside of the pipe. In order that a locknut may fit loosely on the externally threaded part, an allowance equal to the "increase in pitch diameter per turn" is provided, with a tolerance of 1 1/2 turns for both external and internal threads.

Fastener Black Book

The FASTENER BLACK BOOK is a Technical Fastener Resource Book consolidating the abundance of Fastener information into a easy-to-read and convenient user friendly format. Whether you are a Designer, Engineer or looking to understand Fasteners better, the Fastener Black Book is an invaluable tool for Apprentices, Trainees, Tradesmen, Machinists, Machine Shops, Tool Rooms, Technical Colleges, Fabricators, Sheet Metal Workers, even simply as a gift to a colleague. Click this link to purchase https://www.amazon.com/Fastener-Black-Book-Reference-Manual/dp/0958057133 Also available in Inch Edition Spiral-bound https://www.amazon.com/Fastener-Black-Book-Inch-Rapp/dp/1921722444

Interpretation of Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing 3rd Edition

  Completely updated for ASME Y14.5-2009! Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T) has become accepted around the world as the international symbolic language that allows engineers and machinists to use engineering drawings to communicate from the design stage through manufacturing and inspection. Deductively organized, this book is a complete on-the-job reference that provides a thorough understanding to the complex ASME Y14.5-2009 "Dimensioning and the Tolerancing" standard. Uses a "building-block" approach with examples (some dimensioned and toleranced in inches and some in millimeters) to illustrate each concept. Reinforces the explanations with end-of-chapter self evaluation exercises (the answers to all questions and problems are contained in the back of the book). Includes over one hundred drawings that illustrate concepts under discussion. Provides the information needed to become conversant in the techniques of GD&T and how to smoothly integrate this knowledge into engineering design and modern inspection systems. Click this link to purchase https://www.amazon.com/Interpretation-Geometric-Dimensioning-Tolerancing-Puncochar/dp/0831134216  

Precision Machining Technology 2nd Edition

  Packed with detailed examples and illustrations, PRECISION MACHINING TECHNOLOGY, 2e delivers the ideal introduction to today's machine tool industry, equipping readers with a solid understanding of fundamental and intermediate machining skills. Now fully integrated with MindTap—an online, highly personalized learning resource—it provides learners with the most interactive and engaging experience available. The text is completely aligned with the National Institute of Metalworking Skills (NIMS) Machining Level I Standard and fully supports the achievement of NIMS credentials. It also carries NIMS' exclusive endorsement and recommendation for use in NIMS-accredited Machining Programs. More comprehensive than ever, the Second Edition includes new coverage of cutting tools, teamwork, leadership, and more. The text continues to provide an emphasis on safety throughout and offers thorough coverage of such topics as the basics of hand tools, job planning, benchwork, layout operations, drill press, milling and grinding processes, and CNC. A companion Workbook/Shop Manual provides helpful review material to ensure readers have mastered key concepts while guided practice operations and projects on a wide range of machine tools will enhance their NIMS credentialing success. Time-saving instructor resources are available at the Instructor Companion Site for the text. The carefully created resources include: PowerPoint chapter presentations with selected images, an Image Library containing images from the book, an Answer Key for both the Textbook and Workbook, and a NIMS Duties and Standards Correlation Grid. Also available with the text is a link to Cengage Learning Testing Powered by Cognero a flexible, online system that allows you to author, edit, and manage test bank content from multiple Cengage Learning solutions; create multiple test versions in an instant deliver tests from your LMS, your classroom or wherever you want. Click this link to purchase https://www.barnesandnoble.com/w/precision-machining-technology-peter-j-hoffman/1119330208

Precision Manufacturing

  Precision Manufacturing provides an introduction to precision engineering for manufacturing. With an emphasis on design and performance of precision machinery for manufacturing – machine tool elements and structure, sources of error, precision machining processes and process models sensors for process monitoring and control, metrology, actuators, and machine design. This book will be of interest to design engineers, quality engineers and manufacturing engineers, academics and those who may or may not have previous experience with precision manufacturing, but want to learn more. Click this link to purchase https://www.amazon.com/Precision-Manufacturing-David-Dornfeld/dp/0387324674